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Title: Quality control of PET camera for small animal imaging
Other Titles: Έλεγχος ποιότητας κάμερας PET για απεικόνιση μικρών ζώων
Authors: Ευθυμίου, Νικόλαος
Issue Date: 2009-02-06T10:46:56Z
Keywords: Κάμερα PET μικρών ζώων
Μοριακή απεικόνιση
Πυρηνική ιατρική
Χωρικά ευαίσθητοι φωτοπολλαπλασιαστές
Keywords (translated): Small animal PET camera
Molecular imaging
Nuclear medicine
Position sensitive photomultipliers
Abstract: -
Abstract (translated): The term Molecular Imaging (MI) can be broadly defined as the in vivo characterization and measurement of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In contradistinction to “classical” diagnostic imaging, it sets forth to probe the molecular abnormalities that are the basis of disease rather than to image the end effects of these molecular alterations. The underlying biology represents a new arena for many researchers. A number of technological challenges such as signal amplification, data and image processing and efficient imaging strategies, provide a fast growing scientific domain. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and optical imaging are the main tools of clinical molecular imaging. Nuclear medicine techniques (SPECT and PET) are key players in MI. New radiopharmaceutical products are currently being developed, in order to increase the specificity and sensitivity of existing imaging techniques. Small animal imaging is the main tool for the evaluation of those derivatives, especially in dynamic in vivo studies. In this, preclinical part, high resolution and high sensitivity imaging equipment is necessary; as a result a number of such prototypes have been developed worldwide and some of them are commercialized. However, there cost is usually not affordable for small or medium size laboratories. In this work a low cost dual head PET camera, suitable for high resolution small animal studies has been developed. It is the result of the collaboration between Jefferson lab and Technological Educational Institute of Athens (TEI) and is currently evaluated in Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products (IRRP), in “Demokritos” Center. The system has a field of view of 5x5cm and is based on 2 H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs), coupled to two LSO crystals with 2.5x2.5mm pixel size. Then an FPGA based data acquisition system and proper data reconstruction system collect events, sort coincidences and produce images. The DAQ board consists of 16-channel DAQ modules installed on a USB2 carrier. Each channel is an independent acquisition system consisting of traditional analog pulse processing, FPGA analog control, and FPGA signal processing. After acquisition and processing, channel data are assembled into event blocks for readout by the carrier board. Application specific tasks are performed in JAVA using the Kmax interface. The GUI was designed to be easy-to-use. In order to further analyze images and process the results proper algorithms were developed in MATLAB and ImageJ. Systems evaluation has been carried out using FDG. Point sources have been used for systems calibration. Capillaries with 1.1mm inner diameter were imaged and used for resolution calculation. Finally a mouse injected with 100μCi of FDG was imaged. Spatial resolution has been measured using thin capillaries (1.1mm inner diameter) and found equal to 3,5mm in planar mode. This lower limit is determined by LSO pixels size (2.5×25mm2). Simulation studies have shown that resolution lower than 2mm will be achieved in tomographic mode. Mice injected with FDG are presented. Brain and heart are clearly imaged. Currently, a rotating base is constructed, in order to upgrade the system to a tomographic PET. PET results will be presented as well. In addition, IRRP and TEI are working on new radiopharmaceuticals based on Cu-64. It must be stated that PET market opened in Greece four years ago; This system is the first working small PET prototype in Greece and it initiates national preclinical PET research.
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